Hailing in the 19th century, cooling towers developed through the establishment of condensers. The condensers were to be used with steam engines. Condensers require cold water for operation through various means for the steam channelled out of the turbines to condense.
With that, the pressure reduces; hence, the consumption of steam and fuel reduces. At the same time, power consumption increases as well as the recycling of boiled water.
The cool water was a requirement with the operation of the condensers. Research shows that the cooling water use is estimated to cut down the power availability for most thermal power plants.
Definition of Cooling Towers
Cooling tower refers to a device that rejects wasted heat by channeling it to the atmosphere via the cooling of a particular watercourse to lesser temperatures.
The systems of cooling towers use two methods, which include water evaporation and air to emit excess heat while cooling the temperature of the operating fluid.
Cooling towers can be found in oil manufacturing companies, chemical plants, petrochemical, thermal energy stations and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. The placement of cooling towers depends on the air induction to the channels.
Types of Cooling Towers
Cooling towers are classified according to the air induction, and they are of two types namely:
• Natural Draft
• Induced Draft
Sizes of Cooling Towers
Cooling towers come in different sizes depending on the building that houses the plant. Some cooling towers are small roof top units while others take hyperbolic structures of approximately 200 meters and 660 feet tall.
Other cooling towers take rectangular shapes of more than 40 meters, 130 feet tall with a length of 260 feet.
Although most hyperboloid cooling towers always reflect nuclear power plants, some are used in coal-fired plants and large chemical industries. Prominent as the massive cooling towers are, most plants invest in smaller cooling towers.
HVAC Cooling Towers
Heating ventilation and air conditioning cooling towers operate through evaporating cooling. Water is channeled to the upper part of the cooling tower through pumping. The water flows down to the cooling tower basin while the PVC fills up.
Air is then pulled and channeled over the water. It then emits heat via evaporation. After the water emission, pumping of the heat takes place where it is piped to the chiller for further absorption of the cooled water.
The HVAC cooling tower features a float that regulates water levels in the basin. The HVAC cooling tower can be controlled by a reset schedule depending on the external temperatures because it is equipped with variable frequencies drives.
The features are energy saving as they let the fan to operate at low speed. HVAC cooling towers need water treatment and consistent maintenance for proper functioning.
Industrial Cooling Towers
Industrial cooling towers and cooling systems can be used in large and small industrial plants like removing heat from machinery and heated process material. The primary use of massive industrial cooling towers is to emit heat absorbed in the operating cooling towers that operate in petroleum machinery, power plants, natural gas processors, and food processors.